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傅莹:世界舞台需要“新剧本”(中英双语)




 


2018年4月14日,宾大沃顿中美峰会在美国宾夕法尼亚大学举行。本届峰会以“我们这一代”为主题,重点讨论年轻一代人的社会责任和巨大的创新能力,展望中国和中美关系的未来。

全国人大外事委员会副主任委员傅莹应邀出席峰会,并在开幕式上以《书写明天的历史》为题致辞。傅莹指出,中国正日益走近世界舞台中央,且正面临着如何找到自己适当角色的挑战。同时,世界需要一个“新剧本”,新一代人应能超越传统的大国争霸思维,找到国与国之间相处的新路径。

本文为傅莹女士致辞的主要内容,后附英文致辞全文,经作者授权盘古智库发布

(封面图为当地时间4月14日,中国全国人大外事委员会副主任委员傅莹在2018年宾大沃顿中美峰会开幕式上致辞。中新社记者 廖攀摄)


 

2018年4月14日,宾大沃顿中美峰会在美国宾夕法尼亚大学举行。本届峰会以“我们这一代”为主题,重点讨论年轻一代人的社会责任和巨大的创新能力,展望中国和中美关系的未来。傅莹应邀出席峰会,并在开幕式上以《书写明天的历史》为题致辞。

 

傅莹说,今年是中国改革开放第40个年头,中国与美国的关系有了巨大的改变,两国在很多领域成为重要的合作伙伴,双方都从中获益颇丰。不过,中美关系上空也飘来乌云。美国对中国的担忧日益加剧,将中国定位为挑战美国利益和影响、侵蚀美国安全和繁荣的“战略竞争者”,一段时间以来,美国声称要对中国实施贸易关税惩罚措施,加剧了紧张气氛。

 

傅莹说,冷战后,美国延续零和思维,为实现意识形态、经济或者安全目标,过度用兵,透支力量,效果却未如所愿,如今似乎疲态显现。2003年美国发动伊拉克战争时,中国GDP只有美国的九分之一,而10年后美国开始撤军时,中国GDP接近美国的一半,已然成为世界第二大经济体。美国有些人的焦虑在于,照此趋势,中国经济总量赶超美国只是时间问题。

 

傅莹说,中国正日益走近世界舞台中央,但这个舞台从来未曾空场,几个世纪以来舞台上的老剧本不断上演,你方唱罢我登场。中国面临的挑战是如何找到自己适当的角色。“老剧本”中的情节并不总是美好,从古代自我毁灭式的伯罗奔尼撒战争,到近代给人类带来巨大灾难的两次世界大战,权力争夺的剧目一次次上演。依据“老剧本”中权力争夺的思维定式,美国开始把快速成长的中国视为对手和威胁。正如历史学家修昔底德所警示的:是雅典的不断崛起和斯巴达不断增长的恐惧,把它们拖入冲突的陷阱。现在我们是否再次感受到了“修昔底德陷阱引力”?

 

傅莹说,中国人对于世界权力争斗的态度相当淡定。传递出来的信息是平静而严肃的:中国将坚定不移地走改革开放的道路,中美合作符合双方根本利益,也有利于世界的和平与发展。

 

傅莹提醒那些试图对中国的未来进行预测的人们,中国人对于战争与和平的经历和知识是相当丰厚的。在2400年前伯罗奔尼撒战争上演的年代,中国正处于历时500多年的春秋战国群雄争霸的激荡岁月。每个文明都会留下自己独特的思想印记,而中国人的思想遗产是要珍惜和平、维护安定,而不是痴迷于战争。例如,孔子主张“和为贵”、“慎战”,孟子主张“得道多助、失道寡助”,即便是兵法之圣孙子也认为,不战而屈人之兵是上策。“国泰民安”始终是中华民族的追求。今日中国军事战略的防御性质,就深深根植于古代传统思想。但是,中国自近代以来没有能够很好地保卫国土,一个多世纪丧权辱国的教训相当深刻。因此,中国人民期待国家强盛、军队强大,希望拥有强有力的国防力量。中国人深知,和平需要力量来保卫。

 

傅莹说,中国经济社会发展的成功是中国人民在中国共产党领导下努力奋斗的结果。去年秋天举行的中共十九大对中国的历史方位作出了重要的判断,中国特色社会主义进入了新时代,是中国人民实现中华民族伟大复兴中国梦的时代。

 

傅莹说,诚然,中国是仍处于艰难爬坡阶段的发展中国家,距离实现国家现代化的目标还有很长路要走,自身改革发展的任务还很艰巨。例如,帮助剩余的3000万贫困人口彻底脱贫就是当前一项艰巨任务。中国还面临反腐败、加强法治和完善现代国家治理,以及环境治理、经济结构调整等许多任务。在今后相当长时间内,中国必须集中精力进行国内发展,帮助每个家庭和个人提高生活水平。为实现自身的发展目标,我们需要总体和平的外部环境。与此同时,中国越来越认识到自身成长对世界的影响,意识到要对世界承担更大的责任。我们对世界的期待和担忧没有视而不见。中国人需要更快地学习,更快地适应世界大国地位,学会及时和令人信服地向世界阐明自己的想法和意图。

 

傅莹介绍了在刚刚结束的博鳌亚洲论坛上中国国家主席习近平的重要讲话。她说,习主席表达了继续深化改革开放的决心,“中国开放的大门不会关闭,只会越开越大”。他宣布了若干进一步扩大开放的举措,包括加强市场准入、改善投资环境、加强知识产权保护和扩大出口等等。傅莹说,中国进一步改革的政策和扩大开放的举措对如何处理好中美关系面临的挑战也带来启发。中美保持合作伙伴关系,找到彼此都能接受的解决分歧的方法,符合双方根本利益。合作带来共赢,而冲突,无论是在贸易还是在及其他领域,都会损害双方的利益。习主席提出了“构建人类命运共同体”的蓝图,这是21世纪更好的选择。

 

傅莹最后说,世界需要一个“新剧本”。新一代人应能超越传统的大国争霸思维,找到国与国之间相处的新路径。中美关系的未来终归要靠你们来书写,相信未来将会更加美好。

 

作为美国最大的学生组织峰会,沃顿中美峰会自2016年创办以来,共拥有来自4个国家、34个州和70多个城市的1500多名与会者,共同探讨中国社会和经济发展的现状和未来以及中美关系以及中国与世界的交往。

 

 


傅莹女士致辞英文全文


 

The World Needs a “New Script”

 

Fu Ying


This year marks the 40th anniversary of reform and opening-up in China. The China-US relationship has also witnessed profound changes. Today, more than 300,000 students from China’s mainland are studying at US universities, and nearly 3 million Chinese tourists travel to the US every year. The two countries have become important partners in many areas and both have benefited from cooperation with each other.


However, the relationship is not without difficulties. The US has become increasingly concerned about China, defining China as a strategic competitor which, presumably, challenges the US interests and influence and erodes its security and prosperity. Recently the US is threatening tough trade measures against China, putting more strains on the relationship.


The question is: where does the US administration want to take our relations?


After the end of the Cold War, the US continued to overstretch its military might for ideological, economic and security purposes, which hasn’t produced its intended result. Apparently, the US is now considering strategic retrenchment.


When the US started the Iraqi war in 2003, China’s GDP was only one ninth that of the US. Ten years later when the US started to withdraw, China’s GDP was already half of that of the US, turning into the second largest economy of the world. Should the current trajectory continue, it would only be a matter of time before China catches up with the US. This prospect has made some Americans deeply worried.


Now China is getting closer to the world’s center stage which has never been empty. For centuries, different shows with the same old script have been performed here. The challenge for China is: how to find its proper role?


The old script is mostly about power struggles which have not left the mankind with good memories. From the self-destructive Peloponnesian War in the ancient time to the two devastating world wars in the 20th century, such power fight has been staged again and again.


According to the old script of inevitable power struggles, some in the US have started to see China as a rival and a threat. Thucydides warned that, what made war inevitable was the growth of Athenian power and the fear which this caused in Sparta. Are we feeling the gravitational force of the “Thucydides Trap” once again?


Not so at least on the part of the Chinese. With a sense of equanimity, we are convinced that China-US cooperation is in the fundamental interests of both countries and conducive to world peace and development.


Those who try to make forecasts about China need to note that the Chinese have rich experience and knowledge about war and peace. For example, when the Peloponnesian War was unfolding 2,400 years ago, China was in the Spring Autumn Warring States Period (770 BC-221 BC), with feudal lords vying for power.


Like in the ancient Greece, China was witnessing huge social transformation driven by booming new ideas and innovation. This period saw the rise of intellectual excellence including Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism etc.  And this period was also included in the “Axial Age” by German philosopher Karl Jaspers, which refers to the time in which all foundations that underlie modern civilization came into being. 


Civilization leaves its marks on mankind. And the heritage of the Chinese civilization is to treasure peace and stability, instead of believing in the inevitability of power fight. For example, Confucius said that “peace is precious.” And he called for exercising caution before waging a war. Mencius said that “a just cause attracts much support, while an unjust one finds little.” Even Sun Tzu, the great military strategist, believed that “the supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.”


“Peace and prosperity” has always been the goal of the Chinese nation. In today’s China, for example, the strategic thinking is defensive in nature, which also has its roots in the tradition. 


However, we Chinese have a bitter memory of modern history. For over a century China suffered the humiliation of foreign aggression. The lesson was bitter and the nation is determined to have a strong defense so that the painful history does not repeat. Peace needs to be defended with adequate capabilities.  


The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China held last autumn drew an important conclusion that socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era. Thanks to the leadership of the Party and the hard work of the Chinese people, China has achieved marked success and in the new era, we are getting closer to realizing the Chinese dream.


However, China is still on the up-hill journey of modernization with tough challenges. For example, we need to lift the remaining 30 million people out of poverty in the coming 3 years. Addressing environmental degradation is also an urgent job, let alone the need to improve governance through strengthening the rule of law and fighting corruption. The list is long and for a relatively long period of time, China must focus on its domestic development with the goal of helping every family and every individual to achieve a decent life. 


To achieve its development objectives, China needs a peaceful external environment. We are increasingly aware of the responsibility we need to shoulder for the world and the expectations and concerns of the world.  We need to communicate our views and intentions in a prompt and convincing manner, so that the world can better understand us. 


At the Boao Forum for Asia which I just attended, President Xi Jinping delivered a very important speech. He made it clear to the world that China’s door of opening-up will not be closed and will only open even wider. China will adopt some major measures to pursue further opening, including significantly broadening market access, creating a more attractive investment environment, strengthening the protection of intellectual property rights (IPR) and taking the initiative to expand imports. In short, China will enter a new phase of opening-up.


These policies and measures also provide inspirations to address the challenges in the China-US relationship. China and the US have been important partners to each other over the years. It is in the interest of both sides to maintain this partnership and find mutually acceptable solutions to differences. We stand to gain working together. We would both lose should we enter into confrontation, be it for trade or for any other matters.


Chinese President Xi Jinping has put forward the vision of building a community with a shared future for mankind. We hope it offers a good option for the 21st century.  


The world stage needs a “new script.” The new generation should be able to go beyond the traditional mindsets of power politics and take a new approach. After all, the young people are the ones who will write the history of tomorrow and will make the future even brighter. 


(Chinese Former Diplomat Fu Ying spoke At the Penn Wharton China Summit, 2018 Philadelphia, 14 April 2018)


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